Thyroid Gland Facts

Thyroid Gland Facts

Thyroid – The Master Regulator

The thyroid gland is a high performance engine

  • Controls the rate of oxygen used by the cells the cells to make ATP energy
  • Makes proteins that operate cell and tissue function
  • Governs sensitivity of the cells to other hormones via cell membrane receptors
  • Participates as a feedback mechanism involving other glands: ovaries/ testes, adrenals, thymus, hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas as well as lesser known endocrine cells in the heart, skin, placenta, kidneys, etc.
  • Promotes glucose conversion to pyruvate in the  liver
  • Makes glucose from fat
  • Controls volume of digestive enzymes
  • Maintains nervous system function
  • Promotes the female body’s ability to become pregnant
  • Controls hair growth
  • Facilitates skin hydration
  • Promotes bone growth and maintains strong bones
  • Maintains muscle tone including heart muscle integrity
  • Controls rate that the liver releases cholesterol

Roles of 7 Thyroid Hormones:

  1. T-0 [Thyroamine] – a precursor and by product of thyroid hormone synthesis. Does not act on thyroid hormone receptors.
  2. T-1 [3-iodothyronamine] – is a by-product derivative of T4 Thyroxine – counteracts thyroid hormonal activity. Causes hypothermia, low blood pressure, slow pulse, inactive, torpid states. Protects the heart.                                                   ***Amphetamines, Ecstasy turn on T-1 receptors.
  3. T-2 [3,3’-Diiodothyronine] – Increases mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome oxidase activity.*Stimulates metabolic rate to help in times of cold, over eating. Elevates basal rate. Increases oxidative rates in muscles, brown adipose and liver. Increases fat metabolic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzymes). Increases Growth Hormone. **Not as suppressive as T3 for TSH.
  4. T-3 [3,5,3’ Triiodothyronine] – The active molecule at the nuclear membrane receptor. Activated three ways: (1) Deiodination = removal of one iodine atom,         (2) Sulfation, (3) Glucuronidation
  5. T-4 [Thyroxine] – The major hormone. Called “storage.” 80% of what’s in the body. Converts in the liver, kidneys, brain, and cells to T-3 for active duty.
  6. RT-3 [Reversed T-3] – inactive, unable to express, used to clear out excessive T-4. **Pesticides in food cause more RT-3, as does stress based on adrenal output of stress hormones—cortisol, epinephrine, nor epinephrine. Blocks cell receptors causing thyroid hormone resistance.
  7. Calcitonin – *Suppresses bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclasts’ = bone loss, **Prevents Ca & Phosphorous from being retained in kidneys, thus loss in urine.

Note: If you want to go even further understanding the thyroid, this link will take you  there.  Iodine the Secret to Health by Dr. Jorge Flechas

Dr. Princetta is available for consult via Phone, Skype as well as “in house” visits.    Contact 619-231-1778 or