Thyroid Gland Facts
Thyroid – The Master Regulator
The thyroid gland is a high performance engine
- Controls the rate of oxygen used by the cells the cells to make ATP energy
- Makes proteins that operate cell and tissue function
- Governs sensitivity of the cells to other hormones via cell membrane receptors
- Participates as a feedback mechanism involving other glands: ovaries/ testes, adrenals, thymus, hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas as well as lesser known endocrine cells in the heart, skin, placenta, kidneys, etc.
- Promotes glucose conversion to pyruvate in the liver
- Makes glucose from fat
- Controls volume of digestive enzymes
- Maintains nervous system function
- Promotes the female body’s ability to become pregnant
- Controls hair growth
- Facilitates skin hydration
- Promotes bone growth and maintains strong bones
- Maintains muscle tone including heart muscle integrity
- Controls rate that the liver releases cholesterol
Roles of 7 Thyroid Hormones:
- T-0 [Thyroamine] – a precursor and by product of thyroid hormone synthesis. Does not act on thyroid hormone receptors.
- T-1 [3-iodothyronamine] – is a by-product derivative of T4 Thyroxine – counteracts thyroid hormonal activity. Causes hypothermia, low blood pressure, slow pulse, inactive, torpid states. Protects the heart. ***Amphetamines, Ecstasy turn on T-1 receptors.
- T-2 [3,3’-Diiodothyronine] – Increases mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome oxidase activity.*Stimulates metabolic rate to help in times of cold, over eating. Elevates basal rate. Increases oxidative rates in muscles, brown adipose and liver. Increases fat metabolic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzymes). Increases Growth Hormone. **Not as suppressive as T3 for TSH.
- T-3 [3,5,3’ Triiodothyronine] – The active molecule at the nuclear membrane receptor. Activated three ways: (1) Deiodination = removal of one iodine atom, (2) Sulfation, (3) Glucuronidation
- T-4 [Thyroxine] – The major hormone. Called “storage.” 80% of what’s in the body. Converts in the liver, kidneys, brain, and cells to T-3 for active duty.
- RT-3 [Reversed T-3] – inactive, unable to express, used to clear out excessive T-4. **Pesticides in food cause more RT-3, as does stress based on adrenal output of stress hormones—cortisol, epinephrine, nor epinephrine. Blocks cell receptors causing thyroid hormone resistance.
- Calcitonin – *Suppresses bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclasts’ = bone loss, **Prevents Ca & Phosphorous from being retained in kidneys, thus loss in urine.
Note: If you want to go even further understanding the thyroid, this link will take you there. Iodine the Secret to Health by Dr. Jorge Flechas http://www.xpeditionstv.com/V2/
Dr. Princetta is available for consult via Phone, Skype as well as “in house” visits. Contact 619-231-1778 or http://drprincetta.com